Diktat Teori Musik 2 ini diharapkan dapat menambah sumber bacaan beberapa materi pada Teori Musik Dasar, untuk mengingatkan. Fill Pdf Teori Musik, download blank or editable online. Sign, fax and printable from PC, iPad, tablet or mobile with PDFfiller ✓ Instantly ✓ No software. Try Now!. TEORI MUSIK 2. Oleh: Hanna Sri Mudjilah. Disahkan oleh: Ketua Jurusan Pendidikan Seni Musik,. Dra. Heni Kusumawati, riamemamohelp.cf NIP. 2

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teori ini untuk para pemula by satromia. Teori Musik Dasar. Uploaded by Satromi Aryo Putra Download as PPTX, PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for. SEJARAH MUSIK SEBAGAI SUMBER PENGETAHUAN ILMIAH UNTUK BELAJAR TEORI, KOMPOSISI, DAN PRAKTIK MUSIK. Search · Current · Archives · Announcements · Home > Vol 13, No 2 () > Martopo · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).


Nada-nada melodi aktif. Latihan harmoni adalah menyusun suara sopran. Beberapa hal penting pada bab ini dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut: Pembalikan dari interval ini biasa digunakan ketika nada aktif diselesaikan secara dengan wajar. Secara umum. Pada akor posisi dasar.

Tabel 2. Suara-suara yang bersilangan crossed parts dilarang. Pada posisi tertutup. Diantara dua suara atas yang berdekatan. Antara dua suara. Range suara masing-masing. Pembalikan kedua dari akor tidak boleh diselesaikan dengan melompat.

Nada melodi aktif tidak boleh didobel. Nada-nada disonan harus diselesaikan dengan melangkah ke nada-nada konsonan yang penting. Lompatan melodi dari secondo augmented dan kuart augmented dilarang. Suara-suara dalam bergerak melangkah dengan halus. Pembalikan untuk akor seventh: Tabel 3.

Unisono secara berturut-turut. Tentukan pernyataan-pernyataan di bawah ini mana yang benar dan salah: Dalam kondisi apa dua suara boleh overlap? Jarak antara suara bass dan tenor tidak penting. Dalam kondisi apa dua suara boleh silang cross? Temukan kesalahan-kesalahan pada contoh di bawah ini. Figure bass apa yang tepat untuk akor pada pembalikan pertama?

Tidak diperbolehkan interval lebih dari satu oktaf antara suara-suara atas yang berdekatan. Dapat terjadi lebih dari satu kesalahan pada tiap-tiap contoh: Figure bass apa yang tepat untuk akor seventh pada pembalikan pertama?

Tuliskan pada paranada range suara dari sopran. Latihan-latihan harmoni adalah menuliskan suara sopran. Jawablah pertanyaan di bawah ini: Pembahasan pada bab ini merupakan pendalaman dari beberapa materi teori music. Tabel 4. Octave Clefs Even with the freedom to move C. This can be done with any of the three clef signs the C.

The music is read as though at one octave but sounds either an octave higher or an octave lower than it is written. We have illustrated some in the chart below. Adapun materi berikut ini merupakan hasil pencarian dari music theory. F and G. A useful device that overcomes this problem is one that moves the musical line up or down an octave.

Akhir dari bab ini. Tabel 5. Time Signature The third score has a compound time signature. Anacrusis is also called 'pick- up' or 'up-beat'. We give an example below. In music. A performer would be confused — should the piece be in two or in three. We can list various time signatures as simple time signature or compound time signature. Tanda Birama Simple Compound Beats Time Beat Time Beat per Bar Signature Signature 2 6 minim half note dotted minim dotted half note 2 4 2 2 6 dotted crotchet dotted quarter crotchet quarter note double 4 8 note 2 quaver 6 dotted quaver dotted eighth note 8 eighth note 16 3 9 minim half note dotted minim dotted half note 2 4 3 crotchet 9 dotted crotchet dotted quarter 4 quarter note 8 note 3 triple 3 quaver 9 dotted quaver dotted eighth note 8 eighth note 16 if a piece is so quick that the feeling is of one beat in a bar.

Syncopation The position of notes in a bar show their relative rhythmic strengths. The theme is 'off the beat' for much of the time. One says that the rhythm is 'off the beat' or syncopated.

The triplet notation lets you to do this. Triplet Other-lets The division of notes into smaller notes using triplets and duplets can be extended to irrefular groups of even larger number. The 'effect' is notated using ties. Examples of this are common in popular music including jazz.

There is a second type of syncopation. More precisely. One example is the triplet. As with triplets the groupings can include rests and notes of different value. This is provided by the percussion and bass guitar lines. Triplet In music. We have given a good example of syncopation below.

A crucial feature of syncopation is that there should be a strong sense of the beat 'off which' the theme is being played. Irregular Divisions in Compound Time 2 notes are written in the time of 3 of the same note 1 example: Tabel 6. Other Lets Irregular Divisions in Simple Time 3 notes are written in the time of 2 of the same note 1 example: We might use words like concordant and discordant to distinguish the acceptable from the unacceptable.

Most cultures employ 'tunes' or 'melodies' in their music but Western music is particularly distinctive through its use of 'harmony' whether arising from the interweaving of other musical lines around and about a 'melody line' what we call 'counterpoint' or through the support of a 'melody line' with a progression of 'chords'.

Musical theorists discussing harmony have a particular technical use for the words concord as applied to chords or consonance as applied to intervals. If the root is C and the triad is [C. E flat. G] or [C.

G sharp] and [C.

Chords Chords can exist in isolation but Western music uses them in progression. When written in its close root position. The root functions as the key note when determining whether or not the other two notes in the triad are diatonic or chromatic and therefore whether the triad is diatonic or not.

The Diatonic Scale. Y and Z then the three intervals are i between X and Y. G flat] are not diatonic because neither G sharp nor G flat appear in the major or minor scales on C. The interval between the lowest and the highest notes is a fifth. We need to distinguish 'close' and 'open' harmonies as with triads. E natural which appears in the C major scale and E flat which appears in the C minor scale are diatonic but E sharp which appears in none of the C scales is chromatic.

Diatonic Triads One question that has been asked about triads is 'what is the strict meaning of diatonic triad? As we increase the number of different notes we find that the same arrangement of notes can be 'named' in more than one way and there are also many more 'inversions' possible. E flat and G all appear in scales on C. We need to understand how they relate to one another.

The triads [C. So in the key of C. A triad is a chord with three notes and three intervals. This becomes increasingly important when our chords are made up of a larger number of notes. Diatonic triads to which a seventh is added are called 'diatonic 7th' chords and are marked with the chord token.

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In jazz. Dominant Seventh Chord One area of confusion when naming or identifying seventh chords is the use of the term dominant seventh chord. For example. Thus in Cmaj7 the major 7th has been added to the triad C. Let us finish by summarising the harmonisation in sevenths of the major scale using numbered chords: The 3rd and 5th of the triad can be easily deduced so that it is only necessary to identify additional notes with small numbers.

If you look at the table above summarising the degree of the scale where each type of seventh chord occurs. E and G. The 3rd above the root of the dominant chord in minor keys which is the 7th degree or leading note of the scale is always raised a semitone.

The chords are named for the extension. We list these below. The extensions are added to seventh chords. The quality of the chord is determined by the seventh and the greatest extension names the chord. The point to remember is that the dominant seventh chord is any chord formed by adding a minor seventh to a major triad.

This is also true for the C minor natural and C minor melodic scales. For those who find the naming of extended chords rather baffling. G B D is a major triad and F is the minor seventh above G. In the key of C major. There are a few practical rules about building extended chords. Extended Chords 9th. So if one calls a chord an eleventh it is assumed that the ninth and eleventh are present and that there is a seventh chord present too. The extensions of real interest are the ninth.

For completeness. Remember too that the chord's note name is determined by its root note. This chord. How might we notate the addition of extensions to a chord? The first point to make is that extensions of the tenth and twelve are just thirds and fifths plus an octave.

The most fundamental "rule" of the major-minor harmony system is that music ends on the tonic. A mode often also has a formula that the melody usually uses to arrive at the ending note. Some but not all modal musics also use harmony to indicate cadence.

Like a scale. But again. Changes in the rhythm. Catherine Schmidt-Jones writes about those things that produce a feeling of cadence: In most Western and Western-influenced music including jazz and "world" musics. So the term cadence. Or a mode may have more than one possible melodic cadence. There are lots of different terms for the most common tonal cadences. In some modal musics. A tonal piece of music will almost certainly end on the tonic. When describing triads and chords. Perfect Cadence also Cadenza perfetta Italian.

We have already described how.

Changes in the texture of the music also often accompany a cadence. The most 'stable' chord will be the tonic chord and so any sequence ending with the tonic chord will seem to have reached a 'completion' while those ending on other chords will seem still to be unresolved. Harmonic Cadence The harmonic cadence English.

This is the fundamental difference between the perfect and plagal cadences where both end on the tonic chord and are called. Let us look at the fundamentals of a perfect cadence. When you listen to a piece of music. Cadence parfaite French. Since cadences mark off phrases and sections. Hauptschluss German. The perfect cadence gets its power from two particular note sequences.

This is the most decisive cadence and the I i chord is felt to be very conclusive. The perfect cadence can be seen as analogous to a full-stop. To summarize. Perfect Cadence There is a second sequence of chords that incorporates both the features we mentioned above and uses a dominant 7th in place of the dominant chord above. These cadences are called 'leading note or tone imperfect authentic cadences'.

F natural. In the key of C major or C minor. Adding the 7th makes the dominant. Either chord may be inverted — even both — whether the dominant has a 7th or not. The plagal cadence is usually defined as one whose penult is IV and whose final is I or whose penult is iv and whose final is i.

Plagal Kadenz German. When the perfect cadence ends a piece of music both the dominant and tonic chords should be in root position. Cadence plaine French. Composers like to break the rules! However the chord sequence is generally most effective when both chords are in root position. Notes in both chords can be doubled although it is better not to double the 7th in the dominant chord.

When the I i is inverted. The plagal or church cadence replaces the dominant. When the tonic note is not in the highest part. Note in each case the final chord is the tonic. Cadenza plagale Italian. Although the key centre is strongly established by this progression. This type of cadence is perhaps analogous to a comma. Such a cadence is often used where a perfect cadence would seem overly emphatic — it does not check the flow of the music too severely.

The effect is weaker than in the perfect cadence but was popular in music of the sixteenth century. Plagal Cadence also Amen cadence. When the V is inverted. The absence of the leading note in the subdominant chord makes it weaker than the dominant chord as a preparation for the tonic chord.

When the cadence occurs in the middle of a piece. IV or VI. Halbschluss German. Some theorists have widened its definition to include cadences whose penult is on the subdominant flat side of the tonic e. The latter should not be confused with the half. Imperfect Cadence also Half cadence. VI and vi. The vi triad is not found as the penult in any effective cadence and so it can be ignored.

Cadence imparfaite French. The term is best used to describe cadences in which the penult contains the tonic degree. Both the perfect and plagal cadence end on the tonic chord.

This gives the following endings: All of these cadences have a penult which can also harmonise the tonic note. The only triads which contain the tonic degree except for I and i are IV. This is why the plagal cadence is sometimes called the Amen cadence because of its use at the end of hymns. We give examples of a number of imperfect cadences below.

Cadenza imperfetta Italian. Cadenza d'inganno Italian. For this reason. These cadences are the same as the authentic. Sometimes the term 'deceptive' is used to describe these progressions. The two terms. So an interrupted cadence is a dominant chord followed by any chord except the tonic. IVb and I7 are good examples. There are other chords which may be deemed to be deceptive finals. Trugschluss German. I7 sounds like I but it has a different function.

Deceptive Cadence When V resolves to vi it sounds like a very effective resolution because vi is able to function as a genuine tonic.

The effect of this progression is dependent on the chord to which they resolve. Cadence trompeuse French. Cadenza sfuggita Italian. The expectation that a dominant chord moves to a tonic chord. In this way this cadence is genuinely deceptive. The IV is usually used in its first inversion and sounds similar to vi. Unterbrochener Schluss German. Cadence interrompue French. Due to their similarity to genuine tonics both these chords have been introduced deceptively.

Interrupted Cadence When the V chord resolves to a chord which bears no relation to a true tonic. The cadence has been interrupted. It sounds like a normal cadence. Any other chords which bear similarity to the genuine tonics of I.

We give some examples below. There is no distinction made between the interrupted and deceptive cadences in conventional music theory. Other Scales Jazz Scale The jazz scales can be thought of in the same way as modes: They argue that jazz scales are just 'altered' scales and the suggestion that the various scales are related to a single Ur- scale leads to a serious misunderstanding of the way scales are used in jazz and.

We are sympathetic to this view but many other commentators take a different view on this and so. The 'standard' Church modes may be thought of as having been derived from an underlying Ionian or major scale.

We met jazz scales earlier when discussing the modes based on the melodic minor scale but we show them again. It should be noted that this pattern produces two chords with the same bass note in both chords. Several commentators object to this approach. When the first chord is stronger than the second.

Feminine Endings F. In a similar way. Cadences are normally found where the second chord is rhythmically stronger than the first. The blues scale supposedly has its roots in African American music dating back to the days of slavery. Blues Music of certain genres have developed around certain chordal patterns and related scales. Blues Scales The blues scale is neither a minor nor a major scale but the internal dissonances provide the 'colour' that one associates with blues music.

The minor pentatonic scale can thus be used as a substitute for the blues scale. One way to introduce added interest when using the blues scale is to use any special effects at your disposal to vary your sound.

In vocal music. The beauty of the blues scale is that it can be played over an entire blues progression with no real avoid notes. This unfortunately leads many players to overuse the scale. If you try playing lines based on this usage for example. In instrumental music. This can include honking and screaming for saxophonists. Variations on the blues scale that include the natural third. You should note the unusual naming of the fourth note of this scale.

The flatted seventh and fifth also are not always sung or played exactly on the notated pitch. Raising or lowering by a semitone the notes of the chord and its extensions may change its dissonance. Blues style G. Care must be taken that these altered chords are correctly numbered and later we look at a few examples to show how this is done. Altered Chords Any chord. By convention. The 6th degree is excluded unless it appears one octave higher as a 13th.

By making reference to the major scale. If it is 'sharped' or 'flatted' we usually use the new note to establish the new standard major scale to which all the remaining notes are then compared.

This rhythm is illustrated below. This increases the 'tension' of the chord and increases the sense of release as one moves to a less dissonant chord. The most obvious example is the root itself. In particular. The convention is extended also to the 3rd important in determining whether a chord is major or minor and 7th because of its role in dominant chord formulae degrees of the scale.

In any chord. In fact. The standard way of writing altered seventh chords is to identify the quality of the chord i.

The main purpose of alternating chords is to increase the effectiveness in a progression. We have seen already how a dominant seventh is more effective than a dominant in a perfect cadence. If more than one note is altered both are shown. The examples below show how altered fifths. The first inversion has F in the bass. It is commonly used to reach the dominant chord or the tonic chord in second inversion when performing a cadence.

In either form. It is very occasionally used in root Teori Musik 2 Page Altered chords Neapolitan Sixth One 'named' altered chord is the Neapolitan Sixth or Phrygian II which is the first inversion of a major chord on the flattened sometimes described as 'lowered' supertonic. F and A flat. This is a member of the family of Neapolitan chords. In the key of C the flattened or 'lowered' supertonic is D flat. The alternating dominant chords on C.

Changes in dynamics. Identify all important cadences. Musical Analysis Dr. James Sobaskie. Is there a logical relation or sequence which links them? When using a Neapolitan sixth in major keys. The examples illustrated below are in D minor and F major. F and D resolve via a Neapolitan Sixth to the principal theme heard on the oboe in bar What does each section do in the context of the whole piece? Identify the harmonic and contrapuntal elements which are directly involved in creating the cadences you've identified.

Means It is important to understand the means by which a piece's goals are achieved. Gerakan yang terbaik adalah dengan gerak contrary atau oblique, walaupun, banyak juga gerak similar disukai. Pada penulisan empat suara, seringkali disukai nada bas bergerak contrary dengan melodi atau suara atas, jarang sekali empat suara bergerak dalam arah yang sama. Ada perkecualian, dimana seluruh suara bergerak dalam arah yang sama, seperti berikut ini: Gambar Pada penulisan harmoni, suara yang saling bersilang sebaiknya dihindari.

Sejak periode awal kontrapungtal, suara-suara yang bersilang sudah biasa, karena adanya pertolongan secara individual dari suara yang dipertahankan pada masing-masing suara. Bach seringkali menggunakan suara silang, khususnya pada choral vokal, tetapi ini membawa pada suatu komplikasi yang tidak biasa bahwa mahasiswa tidak diperlengkapi untuk mengatasi sebelumnya. Teori Musik 2 Page 43 Overlapping dari suara yang berdepatan juga tidak diperkenankan, kecuali pada kasus di bawah ini: D.

Inversi Akor Akor Pembalikan Jika anggota dari suatu akor selain root berada pada suara bass, maka akor tersebut dikatakan pembalikan. Pembalikan pertama first invertion dari suatu akor memiliki nada terts di suara bass, pembalikan kedua second invertion dari suatu akor memiliki nada kuint di suara bass.

Pada akor seventh memiliki empat nada yang berbeda, sehingga terdapat pembalikan ketiga third invertion. Akor Pembalikan Teori Musik 2 Page 44 Figur bass pada tiap-tiap akor dengan pembalikan dapat ditulis sebagai berikut: Gambar Larangan dalam penulisan empat suara Ada beberapa larangan dalam penulisan empat suara, atau sedikitnya perlu dihindari, antara lain: 1.

Pada tekstur vokal empat suara, masing-masing suara sebaiknya menjaga individualitas. Tidak ada dua suara yang bergerak dalam konsekutif unison, oktaf, atau kuint perfect consonances Gambar Nada-nada melodi aktif, seperti leading tone, seventh dari akor seventh, atau nada dengan tambahan alterasi, tidak boleh didobel. Teori Musik 2 Page 45 3. Pembalikan dari interval ini biasa digunakan ketika nada aktif diselesaikan secara dengan wajar.

Secara umum, lompatan yang besar seperti seventh dan ninth sebaiknya dihindari kecuali terdapat pada suara luar dan diikuti dengan gerakan yang berlawanan. From the Rolling in the Deep lyrics, there are some hyperboles found and they are presented as follows: You had my heart inside your hand chorus This line is identified as a hyperbole because we cannot really have a heart inside of our hands.

This line literally means that she really loved him, that her love was only for him. The relationship here is a relationship between a woman and a man. The woman loves the man deeply. This is indicated by the occurrences of many hyperbolic sentences indicating that she would do anything to make him be her love.

This song is about the feelings of the woman towards the man that she loves. It represents the hardship. This interpretation is supported by the lines following this metaphor.

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When we say "someone is on my case", it means that "someone is meddling with my affairs". Therefore, in this case, "the whole world is on your case" is a metaphor that means "the whole world is looking at you, judging you, and meddling with your everyday life.

In this context, the author would with all her heart embraces and support her love. No one can really live that long. Humans in general can only live for years. The use of hyperboles in the lyrics along with the use of metaphors creates a special effect. The listeners would be blown through the use of the suitable exaggeration.

Field refers to the subject matter. This song is about the conflicting elements in a love relationship. The relationship here is a love relationship between Adele the singer and her ex-boyfriend. The mode is spoken if the song is sung and written if the lyrics are not sung. Below are the data followed by an analysis for each figurative. I let it fall, my heart, And as it fell you rose to claim it It was dark and I was over Until you kissed my lips and you saved me Verse 1 Verse 1 of the lyrics describes an event in which the writer felt alive again with the presence of a lover.

The first two lines are parallel in meaning with the last two lines. She was not really dead of course, but she was comparing her life with that of a dead person i. Next, the lover saved her from such life by rising to claim her heart, which means he made her able to feel again. Of course all the actions in this verse did not happen literally. Followings are the data followed by an analysis for each personification: That heart you caught must be waiting for you Coda Whenever an inanimate object or abstraction is given human qualities or abilities, a personification occurs.

In the coda in the second line, the writer gives an abstract object her heart the ability to perform an action to wait for someone, that is, her ex-lover.

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Synecdoche in Set Fire to the Rain As explained in the earlier chapter, a figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa is called a synecdoche. Synecdoche is also employed by the writer as a means of expression in her lyrics. Here, a part is made to represent the whole and therefore this is a synecdoche. This song is about the breakdown of a relationship.Pada akhirnya, kepada semua pembaca diucapkan selamat membaca dan semoga kehadiran buku ini memberikan manfaat yang besar dalam mengembangkan pengetahuan musik dan meningkatkan pemahaman teoritik musik dimasa depan.

Hal ini menjadi jelas bahwa progresi dari tiap baris individual. Berikut ini kemungkinan urutan suatu kadens interior:. The plagal cadence is usually defined as one whose penult is IV and whose final is I or whose penult is iv and whose final is i. This is the most decisive cadence and the I i chord is felt to be very conclusive. Akor minor dalam posisi dasar: pendobelan secara berturut pada root, third, fifth Beberapa buku lain mengatakan bahwa nada yang terbaik untuk didobel adalah nada-nada pokok I, IV, V , baik pada akor minor maupun mayor.

Dasar dari susunan ini menjadi pola dalam system triadic harmony. Teori Musik 2 Page 42 Gerak antara dua suara atau lebih, dapat berupa similar, contrary, atau oblique. The vibrator producing fluctuations. The most obvious example is the root itself.

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