# OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES PDF

Douglas: Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes. Edgar, Himmelblau, and Lasdon: Optimization of Chemical Processes. Gates, Katzer, and Schuit. McGraw-Hill Higher Education A Bvision of The McGraw-His Companies OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES, SECOND EDITION Published by. Optimization of Chemical Processes 2nd Edition. By Thomas F. Edgar - Optimization of Chemical Processes: 2nd (second) Edition. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering (7th edition)(McGraw Hill.

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Optimization of Chemical Processes by Thomas F. Edgar Solution Manual 2nd Ed - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. t. Apr 16, Optimization of chemical processes, second edition. By Thomas F. Edgar, David M. Himmelblau, and Leon S. Lasdon, McGraw Hill, New York. OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES. Course Code: 13CH L T P C. 4. 1 0 3. Course Educational Objectives: Optimization plays an important role.

Watson, Springer Verlag Google Scholar Pronzato, L. Walter, A. Venor and J. Simul XXVI, — Google Scholar Reklaitis, G. Ravindran and K. Google Scholar Salcedo, R. Gonalves and S.

Google Scholar Seider, W. Brengel and S. Theory Appl. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania Google Scholar Sun, A. Floudas and P.

## Related Interests

Pardalos, Princeton University Press, p. Shinodo and A. Process Des. Nicola, P. Vanrolleghem, J. Spriet, B. Moor and J. Application of the algorithms of Sargent and Tarjan to matrices disperse.

Advantages and Inconvenient. Degrees of freedom and variables of design of a diagram of flow 5.

## Global Optimization of Chemical Processes using Stochastic Algorithms

Historical development of the optimisation of processes. Conditions of optimalidad of Karush Khun Tucker 6. Linear programming 7. Approach of the in shape canonical problem and standard form. The method simplex. Method of the Big M and method of the two phases.

Programming no linear 8. As with the high purity case. Lower purities 0. The Base Case constants and variables are tabulated below: Column 1 7 Lower Feed Stage. Column 1 20 Heptane Fraction. When we increase the reflux ratio above 5. A reflux ratio of 4 is selected as the optimum. Column 1 17 Number of Stages. Column 2 4 Reboil Ratio. Column 2 0. In the Main Environment WorkSheet.

Conceptual Design to the Support directory. Define the Fluid Package as follows: Conceptual Design Fluid Package. Conceptual De-sign.

Change the Interaction Parameters to match the regressed parameters obtained in Part 1 or copy the. The Feed locations remain the same. In the SubFlowsheet. Therefore the number of trays in each column are 24 and 9. Reboilers and Condensers for the high purity setup: There are several alternative methods you can use to obtain a solution.

Mole Fraction. As an example. Toluene It may not be possible to immediately solve to these specifications. We want to solve to the following specifications: Run the column. Add the following Toluene Recovery Spec: Run but do not Reset the column after each change. In any case.

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Whether a certain set of specifications will solve depends in part on the solution history. Once it solves. Add the following Flow Spec: Re-run the column.

Re-run the column do not reset. We obtain the following Condenser and Reboiler duties: Column 1 Condenser — 1. Reboilers and Condensers. Solving the Column We want to solve to the following specifications: The pressures and temperature estimates will be defined as before: Simply change the Heptane and Toluene Fracs to 0. Toluene In this case. The first configuration is more desirable despite the high Reflux Ratio. Revenue — Income obtained from the sale of the process products.

Column 1 Condenser — 3. Raw Data Some of the Economic.

This section is divided into the following parts: Raw Data — Data which is used in the calculation of capital costs. Material and Utility costs that are used in this simulation are shown below: Economic Cost Index to 1. Capital Cost — Initial equipment and related costs associated with the construction of the process. The methods used here to calculate capital costs. The benefit of these methods is that they are easy to implement. This will be confirmed in the next section.

Annual Expenses — Expenses associated with the operation of the plant. Nomenclature and Constants — A list of the nomenclature and constants used in the various expressions in this section. SteadyState to calculate the economics of the process. That is. Column 2 Capital Cost A percentage of delivered-equipment cost method is used to determine the total capital investment. Column 1 Number of Trays.

Service and Land. Direct and Indirect Costs. The sum of the costs of these six items is the Equipment cost based on prices. Item Factor Reference Installation 0. Annual Expenses The following table lists the expenses which are considered in the economic analysis of this plant. Contracting and Contingency costs.

## Circular chemistry to enable a circular economy

Direct costs include Installation. Direct and Indirect Costs The costs of each item below is estimated as the Equipment cost multiplied by the respective Factor for that item. New Building. Item Factor Reference Contracting 0.

Application Example Expense http: The Income after tax is the Annual Operating Income multiplied by one minus the tax rate. It is assumed that there is no salvage value.

Calculation of Net Present Worth The following points outline the simplified calculation for net present worth: This expenditure is the total cash flow for year zero. It is assumed that the life of the process is five years. This expression simplifies to: The revenue and expenses are applied at the end of each year. If you want to use this Spreadsheet as a template for other processes. Add a Spreadsheet and enter the following information: Note that the Spreadsheet we are constructing contains some information which is not used in this example.

Retrieve the process case. Import data links into Spreadsheet. Save the template. Create a new template and enter Fluid Package data.

When we load this template into the case. Enter the Main Environment. As with creating a Case. Enter the headings as shown below. Toluene and Phenol. B23 excluding B17 are: Annual Expense and Revenue Data is shown below: Economic and Annual Data The Economic. Dynamic Design does not accept the import. There is also some additional Simulation Data in this area H16 H There are no formulae on this page. The formulae are listed below: All of the cells in column D shown here are formulae.

B26 have already been completed. Note that cells A These are the formulae used: Importing Variables into Spreadsheet First. Save it e. There are a large number of variables to import into the Spreadsheet. They are all listed below: Chapter 4. Navigation select the flowsheet variable you wish to import to the Spreadsheet.

You will see the menu shown to the right. Importing From the Connections Page To add an import. In the Cell column. Note that you may also drag variables into the Spreadsheet. When you move to the Spreadsheet page. Once you have imported all the variables.

Importing Variables from the Spreadsheet Page Browsing You may also import a variable by positioning the cursor in an empty field of the Spreadsheet and clicking the right mouse button.

Choose Import Variable. Set the location of the feed stream. All further analysis will consider only the first configuration. For the Low Purity Configuration specify the following: Recall that we could improve the Toluene Purity and Heptane Purity to 0. Even though we could improve this figure. Optimization We will use the following procedure in determining the optimum location of the feed streams: After the column solves.

Set low and high bounds of 0. Solve the column to the following specifications: On the Variables Page of the Optimizer. On the Parameters page. On the Functions page of the Optimizer.

The results are tabulated below. It is a stable specification to adjust. There is a point somewhere in the middle of the range of Solvent Rates where the Net Present Worth is maximized.

## References

Similar logic applies for the Toluene and Heptane Fractions. Select the Start button. Optimization of Purities and Reflux Ratios Several variations of the reflux ratios and purities are now tested. The Optimizer is set up as follows: Primary Variable 1: Source — T Variable — T We therefore have to be cautious when we select the primary variable ranges. Spec Value. The danger with this approach is that we cannot simply input the maximum purities as the high limit and the minimum reflux ratios as the low limit.

Solvent Rate Low Bound — 0. Toluene Fraction Low Bound — 0. There would be many combinations in this range which would not solve. The search for the optimum result has gone to the point where we have to include more primary variables and allow HYSYS to find the appropriate solution.

Heptane Fraction Low Bound — 0. In the next section. The results are tabulated below: Reflux Ratio 1 4. This is significant. The column configuration is summarized below: Note that none of the Actual Values are at the Boundary limits. The Optimizer Variables page is shown below. The Reflux Ratio for the second column will be allowed to vary while we attempt to find the maximum Net Worth.

Column 2 and Column 1 Component Summary. The Results are shown here: Temperature Profile. The Reflux Ratio for Column 1 was relaxed to Column 1 Column Worksheet As a point of interest. As in the example. This is clearly an unacceptable option. If you installed your Condensers as Total Condensers. Setting the Dynamic Property Model Parameters — The proper choice of these parameters will ensure numeric stability and accurate extrapolation.

Overview Before we can run the process dynamically. Note that we already did some sizing calculations in the Steady-State portion of this simulation. Sizing the Vessels — The Tray Sections. We do not want any vapour flow off the condensers. Sizing the Valves — All of the valves must be sized. Condenser Duty and Reboiler Duty. Adding the Controls — We require at least ten controllers. The control scheme selection of Process Variable and Tuning are very important in ensuring a stable control configuration.

We will now have to provide two additional columns specifications. Tray Sections In the economic analysis. Sizing the Vessels It is important to correctly size the vessels in order to ensure a reasonable dynamic response.

Once we have completed these steps. Setting up the Strip Charts — We will track key variables while we run the simulation. The volume of the first tray section is: The diameter is calculated to be 6. Condensers The volume of the condensers are calculated as follows: For the first condenser: For the second condenser: For the second tray section.

Using the Steady-State values. When you enter this value on the Dynamics page of the Tray Section. For the first column: For the second column: Reboilers The volumes of the reboilers are calculated as follows: For the first reboiler: For the second reboiler: Adding the Controls and Sizing the Valves Various approaches could be taken in the development of the control scheme.

The control scheme which we will be using is outlined here: The Controller parameters are displayed below: As noted in other examples. Condenser Duty Controllers For each column. As shown later. Note that fairly conservative tuning parameters have been chosen for the controllers. We must ensure that the controllers are tuned such that any adverse interaction is minimized.

The pressure of the condenser determines the pressure profile of the column. To determine which tray has the highest sensitivity to temperature. Note that when you enter Dynamic Mode. Reboiler Duty Controllers By manipulating the reboiler duty. We will use the Stage 18 Temperature as the Process Variable for the first column. As is apparent from the graphs. For the second column. PV Stage 8 Temp. The Heptane stream will be set on Level control.

This Stage is especially sensitive to variations in the feed flowrate. We want the flowrate of this stream to vary with changes to the Feed flowrate and composition. The bottoms stream also has Level control. The Toluene stream will be set on Level control. The Flowrate is chosen as the Process Variable. Create a new Spreadsheet in the Main Flowsheet and set it up as follows: Import the Toluene Molar Flow into cell B2.

Import the Solvent Molar Flow into cell B4. In Steady-State. Change cell D29 to the figure that is currently being displayed 2. In the Net Worth Analysis. All that is required is to replace the formula in the cell which calculates the Adjusted FCI with the actual figure in that cell. In Dynamics. Although the concept of an instantaneous Net Worth is of no practical use.

The second Strip Chart contains the following variables: If you were concerned that you were not achieving proper accuracy over a range of temperatures and pressures. Enthalpies or Entropies. The control FacePlates appear as follows: In this case. This can be achieved by resetting each controller by turning it off. Dynamic Simulation After switching to dynamics. After a period of time. Run the integrator. The purities line out at different values.

The Strip Charts are shown here: It is interesting to note that even though the purities on the output stream increased. Both Equation of State models incorrectly predicted liquid-liquid behaviour. Note that the Net Worth spikes as soon as we add the upset.

A good fit was obtained for the NRTL property package. We also may be able to achieve better control with a different scheme. This is an example where this instantaneous Net Worth function is certainly not realistic. Conceptual Design was used to obtain low-purity and high-purity column configurations. Conceptual Design was crucial to this simulation.

Without this assurance. NRTL was used for this simulation. Acta Focalia Sinica 2. Cost and Optimization Engineering. Conceptual Design i. James H. Annual Expenses. For the low purity configuration.. Based on the preliminary economic data.. Sixth Edition. SteadyState was used to build the two column configurations. Max S. Conceptual Design and Steady State. Don W. The high purity configuration was shown to be superior in terms of the Present Net Worth to the low purity configuration.

The vessels were sized.

The high purity configuration 0. Perhaps most importantly. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. Feed composition and feed flow upsets were individually introduced.

American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook. Fourth Edition. The process was run dynamically. SteadyState and dynamics. For the high purity configuration.. Extractive Distillation Seader.. Annual Revenues and Economic and Plant Data. Conceptual Design 0. The Optimizer was used to further refine the high purity configuration.

Frederic C. Klaus D. The feed locations for both columns. The system responded reasonably to these upsets. Optimization of Chemical Processes by Thomas F. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Process Dynamics and Control, Ch. Fogler - Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 3a ed.You can use a least squares method too. The cast iron reactor is favored for either interest rate. Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook. Food Eng. Databases of mass spectras for known compounds are available, and can be used to assign a structure to an unknown mass spectrum.

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