Teorías de la motivación. Teoría Bifactorial de Herzberg. copy DOC, DOCX, PDF, RTF in "ZIP file" Download Time: Immediately after payment is completed. Frederick Irving Herzberg (April 18, – January 19, ) was an American psychologist . Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, Gawel. shue riamemamohelp.cf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Teoría Bifactorial de Herzberg. Uploaded by. simitonto. Valanti presentacion PPT .
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But the basic point would be merely that there should be some terms understood so that the victim retains one last portion of control over his or her fate. Escape is not defense, but it is a manner of pro- tecting oneself. A practice of torture that allows for escape through compliance might seem immune to the charge of engaging in assault upon the defenseless.
Such is the proposal. One type of contemporary torture, however, is clearly incapable of satisfying the constraint of possible compliance. The extraction of information from the victim, which perhaps-whatever the deepest motivations of torturers may have been-has historically been a dominant explicit purpose of torture is now, in world practice, over- shadowed by the goal of the intimidation of people other than the victim.
See Amnesty International, Pro- hibited forms of expression range, among various regimes, from participation in terroristic guerrilla movements to the publication of accurate news accounts. The extent of the suffering inflicted upon the victims of the torture is proportioned, not according to the responses of the victim, but according to the expected impact of news of the torture upon other people over whom the torture victim normally has no control.
The function of general intimidation of others, or deter- rence of dissent, is radically different from the function of extracting specific information under the control of the victim of torture, in respects which are central to the assessment of such torture.
This is naturally not to deny that any given instance of torture may serve, to varying degrees, both purposes-and, indeed, other purposes still. Terroristic torture, as we may call this dominant type, cannot sat- isfy the constraint of possible compliance, because its purpose intimi- dation of persons other than the victim of the torture cannot be accomplished and may not even be capable of being influenced by the victim of the torture.
The victim's suffering-indeed, the victim-is being used entirely as a means to an end over which the victim has no control. Terroristic torture is a pure case-the purest possible case- of the violation of the Kantian principle that no person may be used only as a means. The victim is simply a site at which great pain occurs so that others may know about it and be frightened by the prospect.
The torturers have no particular reason not to make the suffering as great and as extended as possible.
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Quite possibly the more terrible the torture, the more intimidating it will be-this is certainly likely to be believed to be so. Accordingly, one ought to expect extensions into the sorts of "ex- perimentation" and other barbarities documented recently in the cases of, for example, the Pinochet government in Chile and the Amin government in Uganda.
There- fore, terroristic torture clearly cannot satisfy even the extremely mild constraint of providing for the possibility of compliance by its victim. Interrogational torture does have a built-in end-point: when the information has been obtained, the torture has accomplished its purpose and need not be continued.
Thus, satisfaction of the con- straint of possible compliance seems to be quite compatible with the explicit end of interrogational torture, which could be terminated upon the victim's compliance in providing the information sought. A further source of arbitrariness is the fact that there is, in addition, no natural limit on the "appropriate" targets of terroristic torture, since the victim does not need to possess any specific information, or to have done anything in particular, except possibly to have acted "suspiciously.
It has been suggested that there might be a category of "deserved" terroristic torture, conducted only after a fair trial had established the guilt of the torture victim for some heinous crime.
A fair procedure for determining who is to be tortured would transform the torture into a form of deterrent punishment- doubtless a cruel and unusual one. Such torture would stand only with a general deterrent theory of punishment according to which who is punished depends upon guilt, but how much he or she is punished depends upon supposed deterrent effects.
I would think that any finding that terroristic torture could be fitted within a deterrent theory of punishment provided the torture was preceded by a fair trial could cut either way and would be at least as plausible a reason for rejecting the general theory as it would be for accepting the particular case of terroristic torture. But I will not pursue this because I am not aware of any current practice of reserving torture as the sentence for people after they are convicted by a trial with the usual safeguards.
Torture customarily precedes any semblance of a trial. One can, of course, imagine various sorts of torture other than the two common kinds discussed here.
These two categories of torture are not intended to be, and are not, exhaustive. See previous note. In a fairly obvious fashion the torturer could consider himself or herself to have completed the assigned task-or probably more hope- fully, any superiors who were supervising the process at some emo- tional distance could consider the task to be finished and put a stop to it.
A pure case of interrogational torture, then, appears able to sat- isfy the constraint of possible compliance, since it offers an escape, in the form of providing the information wanted by the torturers, which affords some protection against further assault. Two kinds of difficulties arise for the suggestion that even largely interrogational torture could escape the charge that it includes assaults upon the defenseless.
It is hardly necessary to point out that very few actual instances of torture are likely to fall entirely within the category of interrogational torture. Torture intended primarily to obtain infor- mation is by no means always in practice held to some minimum nec- essary amount. To the extent that the torturer's motivation is sadistic or otherwise brutal, he or she will be strongly inclined to exceed any rational calculations about what is sufficient for the stated purpose.
In view of the strength and nature of a torturer's likely passions-of, for example, hate and self-hate, disgust and self-disgust, horror and fascination, subservience toward superiors and aggression toward victims-no constraint is to be counted upon in practice.
Still, it is of at least theoretical interest to ask whether torturers with a genuine will to do so could conduct interrogational torture in a man- ner which would satisfy the constraint of possible compliance. In order to tell, it is essential to grasp specifically what compliance would normally involve. Almost all torture is "political"in the sense that it is inflicted by the government in power upon people who are, seem to be, or might be opposed to the government. Some torture is also inflicted by opponents of a government upon people who are, seem to be, or might be supporting the government.
Possible victims of torture fall into three broad categories: the ready collaborator, the innocent by- stander, and the dedicated enemy.
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First, the torturers may happen upon someone who is involved with the other side but is not dedicated to such a degree that cooperation with the torturers would, from the victim's perspective, constitute a betrayal of anything highly valued. For such a person a betrayal of cause and allies might indeed serve as a form of genuine escape.
I35 Torture The second possibility is the capture of someone who is passive toward both sides and essentially uninvolved.
If such a bystander should happen to know the relevant information-which is very un- likely-and to be willing to provide it, no torture would be called for. But what if the victim would be perfectly willing to provide the infor- mation sought in order to escape the torture but does not have the information?
Systems of torture are notoriously incompetent. The usual situation is captured with icy accuracy by the reputed informal motto of the Saigon police, "If they are not guilty, beat them until they are. In short, the victim has no convincing way of demonstrating that he or she cannot comply, even when compliance is impossible. Compare the reputed dunking test for witches: if the woman sank, she was an ordinary mortal.
Even a torturer who would be willing to stop after learning all that could be learned, which is nothing at all if the "wrong"person is being tortured, would have difficulty discriminating among pleas. Any keep- ing of the tacit bargain to stop when compliance has been as complete as possible would likely be undercut by uncertainty about when the fullest possible compliance had occurred. The difficulty of demonstrat- ing that one had collaborated as much as one could might in fact haunt the collaborator as well as the innocent, especially if his or her collaboration had struck the torturers as being of little real value.
Finally, when the torturers succeed in torturing someone genuinely committed to the other side, compliance means, in a word, betrayal; betrayal of one's ideals and one's comrades. The possibility of be- trayal cannot be counted as an escape.
Undoubtedly some ideals are vicious and some friends are partners in crime-this can be true of either the government, the opposition, or both. Nevertheless, a betrayal is no escape for a dedicated member of either a government or its op- position, who cannot collaborate without denying his or her highest values. Defenders of privilege customarily portray themselves as defenders of civilization against the vilest barbarians. One can always try to minimize one's losses- even in dilemmas from which there is no real escape.
But if accepting the lesser of two evils always counted as an escape, there would be no situations from which there was no escape, except perhaps those in which all alternatives happened to be equally evil.
On such a loose notion of escape, all conscripts would become volunteers, since they could always desert. And all assaults containing any alternatives would then be acceptable. An alternative which is legitimately to count as an escape must not only be preferable but also itself satisfy some minimum standard of moral acceptability.
A denial of one's self does not count. Therefore, on the whole, the apparent possibility of escape through compliance tends to melt away upon examination. The ready collab- orator and the innocent bystander have some hope of an acceptable escape, but only provided that the torturers both a are persuaded that the victim has kept his or her part of the bargain by telling all there is to tell and b choose to keep their side of the bargain in a situation in which agreements cannot be enforced upon them and they have nothing to lose by continuing the torture if they please.
If one is treated as if one is a dedicated enemy, as seems likely to be the standard procedure, the fact that one actually belongs in another category has no effect. On the other hand, the dedicated enemies of the torturers, who presumably tend to know more and consequently are the primary intended targets of the torture, are provided with nothing which can be considered an escape and can only protect them- tempt and certainly unworthy of equal respect as human beings.
Consequently, I am reluctant to concede, even as a limiting case, that there are probably rare individuals so wicked as to lack integrity, or anyway to lack any integrity worthy of respect. But, what sort of integrity could one have violated by torturing Hitler?
Any very slight qualification here must not, however, be taken as a flinging wide open of the doors. To be beyond the pale in the relevant respect must involve far more than simply serving values which the torturers find abhorrent. Otherwise, license has been granted simply to torture whoever are one's greatest enemies-the only victims very many torturers would want in any case.
Un- fortunately, I cannot see a way to delimit those who are genuinely beyond the pale which does not beg for abuse. I37 Torture selves, as torture victims always have, by pretending to be collabora- tors or innocents, and thereby imperiling the members of these two categories.
Still, it must reluctantly be admitted that the avoidance of assaults upon the defenseless is not the only, or even in all cases an overriding, moral consideration. And, therefore, even if terroristic and interroga- tional torture, each in its own way, is bound to involve attacks upon people unable to defend themselves or to escape, it is still not utterly inconceivable that instances of one or the other type of torture might sometimes, all things considered, be justified.
Consequently, we must sketch the elements of an overall assessment of these two types of torture, beginning again with the dominant contemporary form: terroristic.
Anyone who thought an overall justification could be given for an episode of terroristic torture would at the least have to provide a clear statement of necessary conditions, all of which would have to be satis- fied before any actions so extraordinarily cruel as terroristic torture could be morally acceptable.
If the torture were actually to be justified, the conditions would, of course, have to be met in fact. An attempt to specify the necessary conditions for a morally permissible episode of terroristic torture might include conditions such as the following. A first necessary condition would be that the purpose actually being sought through the torture would need to be not only morally good but supremely important, and examples of such purposes would have to be selected by criteria of moral importance which would themselves need to be justified.
Second, terroristic torture would presumably have to be the least harmful means of accomplishing the supremely im- portant goal. Given how very harmful terroristic torture is, this could rarely be the case. And it would be unlikely unless the period of use of the torture in the society was limited in an enforceable manner.
Third, it would have to be absolutely clear for what purpose the terror- istic torture was being used, what would constitute achievement of that purpose, and thus, when the torture would end.
And so on. Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 7. Griffin, Podstawy…, op. W tym obszarze rozumienia zadowolenia badania prowadzili Herzberg, Dwuczynnikowa teoria Herzberga.
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Units begin to check in bearpaw Friday morning and set up bearpa somewhere in the RV Park. View Big On Black.Where the population does feel exploited even be- fore the torture begins, the sense of outrage which is certainly ration- ally justified toward the choice of victims, as we have seen could often prove stronger than the fear of suffering.
But now that the torture victim has exhausted all means of defense and is powerless before the victors, a fresh assault begins. The torturers have no particular reason not to make the suffering as great and as extended as possible. The victim is simply a site at which great pain occurs so that others may know about it and be frightened by the prospect.
Amnesty International, pp. If there is also evidence that interroga- tional torture can sometimes be used with the surgical precision which imagined justifiable cases always assume, such rare uses would have to be considered.
In a fairly obvious fashion the torturer could consider himself or herself to have completed the assigned task-or probably more hope- fully, any superiors who were supervising the process at some emo- tional distance could consider the task to be finished and put a stop to it. If not, torture will have been reaffirmed to be an activity of an extremely low moral order. Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Herzberg's theory challenged the assumption that "dissatisfaction was a result of an absence of factors giving rise to satisfaction.